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What is an APA Reference Page?

There are different referencing styles depending on the area of study. For social sciences, the American Psychological Association (APA) Style is the most commonly used citation system. If you are required to use this style, then you have to study and be familiar with the rules and features of this system.

In this article, we will discuss the APA reference page. And just to give you an idea, the list of references is meant to identify and direct the readers to the sources of information which you have included in your work, as well as to acknowledge the author/s.

Writing citations is not an easy task, but with the right guide you will certainly be more comfortable in listing your references. And I’m here to help! To get you started, I will show you simple guides and examples for the APA reference page. You just have to follow the general rules, basic format, and useful notes in this article and you’re on your way to citing references the APA style!

GENERAL RULES

general_apa_rules

  • References used are listed in a new page at the end of the document with the heading “References” at the top center of the page.
  • All entries in the reference list should be double-spaced.
  • After the first line, indent the next lines by 5-7 spaces to create hanging indention.
  • Leave one space after every punctuation mark.
  • Italicize the title of books, newspapers, magazines and journals.
  • The reference list is arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author, name of the organization or title for works with no author.
  • Abbreviate the name of the U.S. states or territories in the reference list. For publication outside of the U.S., include the city and country name separated by a comma.

Examples: Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Pretoria, South Africa : Unisa .

  • Omit the words Publishers, Company or Inc. in the name of the publisher.

Example: McGraw-HilI.

  • The author’s name is written with the last name first followed by the initials.

Example: Villafuerte, S. A.

  • If there are multiple works by the same author, list the references from the earliest to the most recent.

Example: Upenieks, V. (2003).

Upenieks, V. (2005).

GUIDE IN LISTING THE AUTHORS

apa_authors

Two to Seven Authors

Basic Format: Last name, A. A., & Last name, B. B.

Example: Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E.

Note: Instead of “and”, use ampersand (&). List the names of the authors in the same order as it is listed in the source.

More than Seven Authors

Basic Format: Last name, A. A., Last name, B. B., Last name, C. C., Last name, D. D., Last name, E. E., Last name, F. F., . . . Last name, G. G.

Example: Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A., Thomas, S. T., . . . Rubin, L. H.

Note: Up to seven authors can be included in the reference list. List the first six authors and write three ellipsis points after the sixth author, then write the name of the last author.

Organization as Author

Basic Format: Name of the Organization.

Example: American Psychological Association.

Starting to get the drift? Before we go into the detail of the reference format, let me just give you two important tips:

  1. Make sure that the reference list is complete and accurate with a consistent format.
  2. Though the APA reference page is at the end of the document, you have to draft it in advance to avoid confusion and to ensure that all references are properly cited.

REFERENCE FORMAT

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1. Book

Basic Format: Author. (Year). Title of Book (edition if not first). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency.

London, England: Taylor & Francis.

2. Edited Book

Basic Format: Author. (Year). Title of Book. Editor. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: Plath, S. (2000). The unabridged journals. K. V. Kukil (Ed.). New York, NY: Anchor.

Note: The editor’s name is written with the initials first followed by the last name and (Ed.).

3. Edited Book without Author

Basic Format: Editor. (Year). Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

4. Translated Book

Basic Format: Author. (Year). Title of Book. (Translators). Place of Publication: Publisher. (Original Publication)

Example: Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities. (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 1814)

Note: The names of the translators are listed with the initials first followed by the last name and are enclosed in a parenthesis. The abbreviated word Trans. comes after the name of the translator separated by a comma.

5. Multivolume Work

Basic Format: Editor. (Year). Title of Book (Volume). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: Wiener, P. (Ed.). (1973). Dictionary of the history of ideas (Vols. 1-4). New York, NY: Scribner’s.

6. Journal

Basic Format: Author. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume number (Issue number if available), pages.

Examples:

Paginated by Volume

Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.

Paginated by Issue

Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(3), 5-13.

Note: The issue number is written in a parenthesis after the volume number. It should not be italicized.

7. Magazine

Basic Format: Author. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume number, pages.

Example: Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today’s schools. Time, 135, 28-31.

8. Newspaper

Basic Format: Author. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume number, pages.

Example: Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A.

Note: Write pp. before the page numbers.

ONLINE PUBLICATIONS

1. Online Periodical

Basic Format: Author. (Year). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, Volume number (issue number if available). Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Example: Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 149. Retrieved from http://www.alistapart.com/articles/writeliving

2. Online Periodical with DOI

Basic Format: Author. (Year). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, Volume number, page range. doi:0000000/000000000000 or http://dx.doi.org/10.0000/0000

Example: Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41, 1245-1283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161

Note: Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a unique alphanumeric string used by scholarly publishers to provide persistent link to content in the internet. 

3. Online Book

Basic Format: Author. (Year). Title of Book. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/ or doi

Example: Munsterberg, H. (1916). The photoplay: A psychological study. Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/files/15383/15383-8.txt

 

OTHER SOURCES

1. Motion Picture

Basic Format: Producer (Producer), & Director (Director). (Year). Title of Motion Picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio or distributor.

Example: Smith, J. D. (Producer), & Smithee, A. F. (Director). (2001). Really big disaster movie [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.

2. Television Broadcast

Basic Format: Producer (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of Television Broadcast [Television broadcast]. Location: Studio or distributor.

Example: Important, I. M. (Producer). (1990, November 1). The nightly news hour[Television broadcast]. New York, NY: Central Broadcasting Service.

3. Music Recording

Basic Format: Song writer. (Date of copyright). Title of Song [Recorded by artist]. On Title of Album [Medium of Recording]. Location: Label.

Example: Taupin, B. (1975). Someone saved my life tonight [Recorded by Elton John]. On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy [CD]. London, England: Big Pig Music Limited.

Note: If the recording date is different from the copyright date, enclose the recording date in a parenthesis after the label.

 

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